TOEFL Speaking Topics: Conjunctions & Conjunctive Adverbs

While rating your responses on the Speaking questions, ETS test scorers evaluate how well you develop your topic and deliver your message and they rate your responses based on your performance. See the TOEFL iBT Speaking Section Scoring Guide for details.

To get a high score (26-30) on the Speaking Section, your responses should be sustained, well developed, coherent and relationships between ideas should be clear.

To this end, you should use conjunctions to connect sentences and create complex relationships between ideas. We categorized conjunctions according to their various uses (See Conjunctions & Conjunctive Adverbs List) and shared some advice on their usage within sentences below.

Please feel free to share your favorite conjunctions in the comments section, so we will add them to the Conjunction List.

 

Besides (indicate something additional to what has already been stated)

Definition       : Moreover; furthermore; also.

Sentence         : Besides, I promised her we would come.

 

Notwithstanding

Definition       : In spite of the fact that; although.

Sentence         : It was the same material, notwithstanding the texture seemed different.

 

For

Definition       : Because; seeing that, since.

Sentence         : I couldn’t stay, for the area was violent.

 

Hence (used to introduce a logical conclusion)

Definition       : As an inference from this fact; for this reason; therefore.

Sentence         : I shall go to Japan and hence will not be here in time for the party.

 

To illustrate

Definition       : To make clear or intelligible, as by examples or analogies; exemplify.

Sentence         : Markets may not follow predictable, cyclical patterns, but the photographs chosen to illustrate market trends sure do.

 

To sum up

Definition       : To bring into or contain in a brief and comprehensive statement; summarize:

Sentence         : They always sum up the important news in a couple of minutes

 

Last but not least (often followed by a comma)

Definition       : An expression to start the last item of a list, emphasizing that while it is listed last, it is just as important as the rest of the items.

Sentence         : I would like to thank my publisher, my editor, and last but not least, my husband for his encouragement during the writing of my book.

 

ADDITION CONTRAST CAUSE EFFECT EXAMPLE SUMMARY TIME SEQUENCE
And

Also

Moreover

Furthermore

In addition

Additionally

Besides

But

However

Although

Even though

Though

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

In contrast

On the contrary

Conversely

On the other hand

Whereas

Notwithstanding

Because

For

Since

Now that

Inasmuch as

So

Consequently

As a result

Therefore

Hence

Thus

For example

For instance

To illustrate

As an illustration

In conclusion

To sum up

To conclude

For these reasons

First of all

Firstly

Secondly

Last but not least

2 Responses

  1. beginner1010

    Added

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